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R3 Draw - Setup and Attribute Commands

See also:

Concept

This section describes draw commands related to special attributes, matrix setup and various transformations.

All of these are part of the draw dialect, a REBOL sub-language for describing scalar vector graphics (SVG). The dialect consists of a number of command keywords, as listed in this document below.

Each command can be followed by its arguments, all of which are optional. Their names, datatypes, and descriptions are provided in the "argument" table for each command section below.

Anti-alias

Turns anti-aliasing on or off. The default is on.

Argument Datatype Description
active logic! The new value for anti-aliasing behavior

Compare this:

anti-alias off
line-width 10
circle 200x200 100
anti-alias example 1
anti-alias example 1

to this:

anti-alias on
line-width 10
circle 200x200 100
anti-alias example 2
anti-alias example 2

The ANTI-ALIAS command can be used multiple times in the draw block to switch between rendering modes.

anti-alias off
line-width 10
circle 150x150 100
anti-alias on
line-width 10
circle 250x250 100
anti-alias example 3
anti-alias example 3

Clip

Specifies a clipping region; drawing will only occur inside the region.

Argument Datatype Description
upper-left-point pair! The upper-left point of the bounding box defining the clipping region.
lower-right-point pair! The lower-right point of the bounding box defining the clipping region.

The box would go to 200x200, but we clip it.

line-width 2
pen yellow
fill-pen blue
clip 10x10 70x90
box 20x20 200x200
clip example 1
clip example 1

Clipping other shapes can produce interesting effects.

pen yellow
fill-pen red
clip 50x50 125x200
circle 50x50 100
clip example 2
clip example 2

To turn clipping off, use off as the argument to clip.

pen yellow
fill-pen red
clip 50x50 125x200
circle 50x50 100
pen green
fill-pen blue
clip off
circle 125x75 50
clip example 3
clip example 3

Fill-pen

Sets the color or image pattern for area filling. The fill-pen color will remain in effect until it is set again, disabled by off keyword or overriden by grad-pen command.

Argument Datatype Description
color tuple!  
image image! Fill pattern

Simple color fill

fill-pen blue
box 100x100 300x300
fill-pen example 1
fill-pen example 1

Image pattern fill

fill-pen logo.gif
box 100x100 300x300
fill-pen example 2
fill-pen example 2

Switching the fill-pen states

fill-pen blue
box 100x100 300x300
fill-pen logo.gif
box 150x150 250x250
fill-pen off
box 50x50 350x350
fill-pen example 3
fill-pen example 3

Fill-rule

Determines the algorithm used to determine what area to fill, if a path that intersects itself or one subpath encloses another. For non-intersecting paths, you shouldn't need to use this.

Argument Datatype Description
mode word! Fill algorithm non-zero - This rule determines the "insideness" of a point on the canvas by drawing a ray from that point to infinity in any direction and then examining the places where a segment of the shape crosses the ray. Starting with a count of zero, add one each time a path segment crosses the ray from left to right and subtract one each time a path segment crosses the ray from right to left. After counting the crossings, if the result is zero then the point is outside the path. Otherwise, it is inside. even-odd - This rule determines the "insideness" of a point on the canvas by drawing a ray from that point to infinity in any direction and counting the number of path segments from the given shape that the ray crosses. If this number is odd, the point is inside; if even, the point is outside.

The following page has drawings that drawing illustrates the rules: Fill Properties

Gamma

Sets the gamma correction value. Useful for antialiased graphics.

Argument Datatype Description
gamma-value decimal!  

See also: Linear and nonlinear coding

Grad-pen

Sets the color gradient for area filling. The gradient can be defined by up to 256 colors. Each defined color can have specified color offset for creating gradients with asymmetric color ranges.

Argument Datatype Description
grad-type word! The gradient type radial conic diamond linear diagonal cubic
grad-mode word! The gradient rendering mode normal repeat reflect
grad-offset pair! offset from where should the gradient be rendered
grad-start-rng decimal! beginning of the gradient range
grad-stop-rng decimal! end of the gradient range
grad-angle decimal! rotation of the gradient in degrees
grad-scale-x decimal! scale X factor
grad-scale-y decimal! scale Y factor
grad-colors block! block containing up to 256 gradient colors (optionally with color offsets)

The grad-colors block can be in the form:

[color1 [pair! color2 [pair! color3 [pair! ...]

or:

[color1 [pair! offset1 [decimal! color2 [pair! offset3 [decimal! color3 [pair! offset3 [decimal! ...]

NOTE: At the moment the color values inside the block have to be reduced in case of word! references are used for colors.

Simple linear gradient

grad-pen linear 100x100 0 200 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 1
grad-pen example 1

Linear gradient with compressed range

grad-pen linear 100x100 0 50 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 2
grad-pen example 2

Linear gradient in repeat mode

grad-pen linear repeat 100x100 0 50 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 3
grad-pen example 3

Linear gradient in reflect mode

grad-pen linear reflect 100x100 0 50 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 4
grad-pen example 4

Linear gradient with more colors

grad-pen linear 100x100 0 200 [255.0.0 255.255.0 0.255.0 0.255.255 0.0.255 255.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 5
grad-pen example 5

Linear gradient with color offsets

grad-pen linear 100x100 0 200 [255.0.0 0.1 255.255.0 0.2 0.255.0 0.4 0.255.255 0.8 0.0.255 .9 255.0.255 1.0]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 6
grad-pen example 6

Simple radial gradient

grad-pen radial 200x200 0 100 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 7
grad-pen example 7

Diamond gradient with applied rotation

grad-pen diamond 200x200 0 100 30 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 8
grad-pen example 8

Diamond gradient with applied rotation and scaling

grad-pen diamond 200x200 0 100 30 3.0 1.5 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen example 9
grad-pen example 9

To disable the grad-pen set it to off. After that latest fill-pen state is used for filling the areas.

fill-pen red
grad-pen linear 100x100 0 200 [255.0.0 0.255.0 0.0.255]
box 100x100 300x300
grad-pen off
box 150x150 250x250
grad-pen example 10
grad-pen example 10

Mention DIAGONAL, CONIC, CUBIC gradient here.

Invert-matrix

Applies an algebraic matrix inversion operation on the current transformation matrix.

This command has no arguments.

Matrix

Premultiply the current transformation matrix with the given block.

Argument Datatype Description
matrix-setup block! content must be 6 numbers
MATRIX [a b c d e f]

The block values are used internally for building following transformation matrix:

|a c e|
|b d f|
|0 0 1|

For more information about transformations see: SVG Coordinates.

Pen

Sets the color or image for outline rendering.

Argument Datatype Description
stroke-color tuple! Primary line color
dash-color tuple! Used for patterned lines
image image!  

The colors can include an alpha channel value for transparency.

Setting pen to off will disable the pen color to fully transparent.

line-width 3
pen yellow
box 20x20 200x200
pen off
fill-pen blue
box 50x50 250x250
pen logo.gif
fill-pen off
box 100x100 300x300
pen example 1
pen example 1

Push

Stores the current attribute setup in stack.

Argument Datatype Description
draw-block block!  

The PUSH command stores the whole DRAW attribute settings (including matrix and pen settings) into the stack. You can then change the current transformation matrix, pens etc. inside the PUSH command block but all commands AFTER the PUSH command block will use the attribute setup setup stored by the PUSH command.

line-width 3
pen red
transform 200x200 30 1 1 0x0
box 100x100 300x300
push [
    reset-matrix
    pen green
    box 100x100 300x300
    transform 200x200 60 1 1 0x0
    pen blue
    box 100x100 300x300
]
box 180x180 220x220
pen white
box 150x150 250x250
push example 1
push example 1

Reset-matrix

Resets the current transformation matrix to its default values.

The default transformation matrix is a unit matrix. That is:

|1 0 0|
|0 1 0|
|0 0 1|

If you make changes with scale, skew, or rotate, this is how you would reset them.

Rotate

Sets the clockwise rotation, in degrees, for drawing commands.

Argument Datatype Description
angle decimal! The angle in degrees.

Negative numbers can be used for counter-clockwise rotation.

fill-pen blue box 100x100 300x300
rotate  30 fill-pen red box 100x100 300x300
rotate -60 fill-pen yellow box 100x100 300x300
rotate example 1
rotate example 1

Scale

Sets the scale for drawing commands.

Argument Datatype Description
scale-x decimal!  
scale-y decimal!  

The values given are multipliers; use values greater than one to increase the scale; use values less than one to decrease it.

fill-pen blue box 100x100 200x200
scale 2  .5  fill-pen red box 100x100 200x200
reset-matrix  ; Reset the scale.
scale .5 1.5 fill-pen yellow box 100x100 200x200
scale example 1
scale example 1

Another way to reset the scale is to use the PUSH command:

fill-pen blue box 100x100 200x200
push [scale 2  .5  fill-pen red box 100x100 200x200]
scale .5 1.5 fill-pen yellow box 100x100 200x200
scale example 2
scale example 2

For more information about transformations see: SVG Coordinates.

Skew

Sets a coordinate system skewed from the original by the given number of degrees.

Argument Datatype Description
val decimal!  

Positive numbers skew to the right; negative numbers skew to the left.

Note: Currently the skewing transformation has effect on the line width in case fixed is not specified:

line-width 1 fixed
pen white

fill-pen blue
box 120x20 220x120
skew 15
fill-pen red
box 120x125 220x225

reset-matrix

skew -15
fill-pen yellow
box 120x230 220x330
skew example 1
skew example 1

Another way to reset the skew is to use the PUSH command:

line-width 1 fixed
pen white

fill-pen blue
box 120x20 220x120

push [  
    skew 15
    fill-pen red
    box 120x125 220x225
]

skew -15
fill-pen yellow
box 120x230 220x330
skew example 2
skew example 2

Transform

You can apply a transformation such as translation, scaling, and rotation to any DRAW result.

Argument Datatype Description
angle decimal!  
center pair!  
scale-x decimal!  
scale-y decimal!  
translation pair!  

Translate

Sets the origin for drawing commands.

Argument Datatype Description
offset pair!  

Multiple translate commands will have a cumulative effect:

fill-pen blue box 50x50 150x150
translate 50x50 fill-pen red box 50x50 150x150
translate 50x50 fill-pen yellow box 50x50 150x150
translate example 1
translate example 1

You can use RESET-MATRIX to avoid that if you want:

fill-pen blue box 50x50 150x150
translate 50x50 fill-pen red box 50x50 150x150
reset-matrix
translate 50x50 fill-pen yellow box 100x100 300x300
translate example 2
translate example 2

Another way to reset the matrix is to use the PUSH command:

fill-pen blue box 50x50 150x150
push [translate 50x50 fill-pen red box 50x50 150x150]
translate 50x50 fill-pen yellow box 100x100 300x300
translate example 3
translate example 3
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