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REBOL/Core 2.3 Changes

First Release: June 2000

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Contents

Summary of New Features in 2.3
Summary of Enhancements in 2.3
Summary of Fixes in 2.3
New Functions and Refinements in 2.3
Pair Datatype
Make-dir/deep
Unique
Does
Offset?
Load/Markup
Repend
Replace/case
??
To-pair
Enhancements in 2.3
Parse Block
POP handler change
Tab Completion
Load's /Next Refinement
Query Function
Functions Accepting Pair Values
Random Function
System/options/path
What Function
If, Any, and All Functions
Help
Fixes in 2.3
Split-path Function
Network activity interruptible
Trim/lines
To-word Function
To-block Function
Other Changes (From Addendum Document) in 2.3

Summary of New Features in 2.3

The following table shows a summary of new features in REBOL/Core 2.3:

Summary of Enhancements in 2.3

The following table shows a summary of enhancements made to existing functions and global objects in REBOL/Core 2.3:

Summary of Fixes in 2.3

The following table shows a summary of fixes incorporated into REBOL/Core 2.3:

New Functions and Refinements in 2.3

The following new functions and refinements are incorporated in to REBOL/Core 2.3:

Pair Datatype

Pairs are datatypes used to describe the (x,y) coordinates of a point. This datatype is most commonly used to describe graphical objects and their screen positions, sizes offsets, etc. A pair datatype consists of two values separated by an upper or lowercase 'x' as in 10x20. Example: A: 10x20, defines A as a pair datatype consisting of the coordinates x=10, y=20. These values can be individually accessed using the refinements /x and /y as in: print A/x, which would print the value 10.

Make-dir/deep

Using the /deep refinement for make-dir will cause all directories in the supplied path to be created if those directories do not already exist.

The following example uses make-dir/deep to create a long directory structure:

probe dir? %/c/abc
false
make-dir/deep %/c/abc/def/ghi/jkl/mno/pqr/stu/vwx/yz/
probe dir? %/c/abc
true
probe dir? %/c/abc/def/ghi/jkl/mno/pqr/stu/vwx/yz/
true

If make-dir/deep fails any directories that were created before failing will be removed.

Unique

Unique accepts a series argument and returns another series. The result of unique is a copy of the passed in series with out any duplicate items.

Here are some examples demonstrating the behavior of unique:

probe unique "abcabcabc"
"abc"
probe unique [1 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 1]
[1 2 3]

The /case refinement may be used with unique to make the operation case sensitive.

Does

Use does to create functions with out arguments or locally defined words. For example:

get-script-dir: does [probe system/options/path]
probe get-script-dir
%/usr/local/rebol/

Offset?

Offset? takes two series as arguments and returns the distance between their two indexes.

The following example shows offset? being used on the same series:

colors: ["red" "green" "blue" "yellow" "orange"]
colors-2: skip colors 3
probe offset? colors colors-2
3

The example below shows how offset? can also be used with two different series:

str: "abcdef"
blk: skip [a b c d e f] 4
probe offset? str blk
4

Load/Markup

Using the /markup refinement for load causes the string, file or URL argument to be treated as markup data. (Files and URLs are first read in as strings by load.) All tags found in the argument to load/markup will be converted to a tag! value, and all other non tag data is left as a string. The result of load/markup is a block of tag! values and strings.

The next example demonstrates the behavior of Load/markup:

probe load/markup {<head> 123 abc <head>}
[<head> { 123 abc  } </head>]

Repend

Repend is short for "reduce append". Repend takes two arguments. The first argument is a series. The second argument to repend is reduced before it is appended to the first argument.

Here are some examples of using Repend:

a: "AA" b: "BB" c: "CC"
probe repend [] [a b c]
["AA" "BB" "CC"]
probe repend "" [a b c]
"AABBCC"

Replace/case

The replace function now has a /case refinement that forces case sensitive replacements. By default replace is case insensitive.

This example demonstrates using replace on a block without /case:

probe replace/all [A a B b A a B b] 'A 'C
[C C B b C C B b]

This example demonstrates replace on a block with /case:

probe replace/all/case [A a B b A a B b] 'A 'C
[C a B b C a B b]

This example demonstrates using replace on a string without /case:

probe replace/all "ABCabcDEFdefABCabcDEFdef" "abc" "xxx"
"xxxxxxDEFdefxxxxxxDEFdef"

This example demonstrates using replace on a string with /case:

probe replace/all/case "ABCabcDEFdefABCabcDEFdef" "abc" "xxx"
"ABCxxxDEFdefABCxxxDEFdef"

??

?? accepts one argument of any data type.

As an aid to debugging, if a word is supplied to ?? that word will printed out along with the mold of its value. Like the behavior of probe, ?? returns the unevaluated value of its argument so that ?? can be used transparently within arbitrary REBOL expressions.

When ?? is used directly on a non word value the molded value is printed and the unevaluated value is returned.

The next example demonstrates using ?? on a word defined to a block:

blk: ["a" block 'of [values]]
?? blk
blk: ["a" block 'of [values]

The next example demonstrates using ?? on a word defined as a function:

?? probe
probe: func [
    {Prints a molded, unevaluated value and returns the same value.}
    value
][
    print mold :value :value
]

The next example demonstrates using ?? on a non word value:

?? 12:30pm
12:30

To-pair

To-pair accepts one argument of any data type.

To-pair attempts to convert the supplied argument into a pair value.

The next example demonstrates using to-pair with a block:

probe to-pair [11 11]
11x11

The next example demonstrates using to-pair with a string:

probe to-pair "11x11"
11x11

Enhancements in 2.3

Parse Block

Under REBOL/Core 2.3 parse can be used on blocks. The ability to create dialects in REBOL is enhanced through the ability to parse blocks.

Refer to the User's Guide for more information on using parse with blocks.

POP handler change

The POP mail handler has been enhanced to store the total size of messages and the sizes of individual messages. The total size of messages can be found stored as an integer representing bytes in the POP port's locals object under the total-size field. Individual message sizes are stored as a block of message numbers and byte sizes in the port's locals object under the sizes field. Examples:

Total size of all messages in a POP connection:

pop: open pop://login:pass@mail.site.com/
size: probe pop/locals/total-size
735907
print join to-integer size / 1024 "K"
718K

Sizes of individual messages:

pop: open pop://login:pass@mail.site.com/
sizes: pop/locals/sizes
foreach [mesg-num size] sizes [
    print [
        "Message" mesg-num "is" join to-integer size / 1024 "K"
    ]
]
Message 1 is 2K
Message 2 is 2K
Message 4 is 1K
Message 5 is 9K
Message 6 is 1K
Message 7 is 678K
Message 8 is 1K

Tab Completion

Tab completion for the REBOL console has been expanded to show a list of possible matches when pressing tab a second time.

To see the behavior of REBOL's tab completion, type fun at the REBOL prompt and then hit the tab key. Tab completion will expand fun to func. Hitting the tab key once more will show the following: function!, function?, func and function as possible matches for the word you are typing in.

Load's /Next Refinement

The behavior has changed for load's /next refinement. Load/next will not skip over a REBOL script header. To load a script header as an object using the /next refinement, include the /header refinement. Examples:

Saving a simple script to the file simple.r:

save %simple.r [
    REBOL [
        title: "simple"
        file:  %simple.r
        ]
    print "simple script"
]

Using load/next on a simple script:

script: probe load/next %simple.r
[
    REBOL { [
    title: "simple"
    file: %simple.r
]
print "simple script"}]
probe load/next second script
[[
        title: "simple"
        file: %simple.r
    ] {
print "simple script"}]

Using load/next/header on a simple script:

script: probe load/next/header %simple.r
[
    make object! [
        Title: "simple"
        Date: none
        Name: none
        Version: none
        File: %simple.r
        Home: none
        Author: none
        Owner: none
        Rights: none
        Needs: none
        Tabs: none
        Usage: none
        Purpose: none
        Comment: none
        History: none
        Language: none
    ] {
print "simple script"}]
probe load/next second script
[
    print { "simple script"}]

Query Function

Query now accepts objects, returning a block of modified words in that object or none.

The block returned from using query on an object contains the words which have been modified since the object's creation or since it was last passed to query/clear.

The words in the returned block are bound to the context of the object. Using query, changes to an object can be tracked.

The following example illustrates the use of query on objects:

Defining an object:

obj: make object! [
    field-one: "string"
    field-two: 123
    field-three: 11:11:01
]

Using query on obj immediately after the object was created will return none:

probe query obj
none

Using query after a field within obj has changed:

obj/field-two: 456
obj/field-three: 12:12:02
mod: query obj<br>
probe get mod/1
456
probe get mod/2
12:12:02

Query returned a block of modified words bound to obj.

Use query/clear to reset the modified state of the object.

The next example demonstrates clearing the modified state of the fields in obj:

query/clear obj<br>
probe query obj
none

Query on obj returned none because the modified state was reset using query/clear.

Functions Accepting Pair Values

Following is a list of the functions that have been extended to accept pair values:

probe 12x12 + 12x12
24x24
probe add 11x11 11
22x22
probe 24x24 - 12x20
12x4
probe subtract 24x24 12
12x12
probe 12x12 * 12x12
144x144
probe multiply 12x12 24
288x288
probe 12x12 / 2x4
6x3
probe divide 24x24 4
6x6
probe 24x24 // 5x3
4x0
probe remainder 24x24 10
4x4
probe min 12x12 12x11
12x11
probe minimum 23x24 24x24
23x24
probe max 12x12 12x11
12x12
probe maximum 23x24 24x24
24x24
probe negate 12x12
-12x-12
probe negate 12x0
-12x0
probe abs -12x-24
12x24
probe absolute -12x24
12x24
probe zero? 12x0
false
probe zero? 0x0
true
probe pick 24x12 1
24
probe pick 24x12 2
12
probe pick 24x12 3 ; anything beyond 2 returns NONE
none
probe first 24x12
24
probe second 24x12
12
probe reverse 12x24
24x12

Random Function

The random function now takes negative values. When a negative value is used, random returns a number between -1 and the negative value. Examples:

loop 5 [print random -5]
-5
-5
-3
-3
-5
loop 5 [print random -$5]
-$4.00
-$5.00
-$3.00
-$5.00
-$3.00

System/options/path

The word path has been added to the system/options object. System/options/path is the directory where the current REBOL script was executed from. Example:

print system/options/path
/C/REBOL/

What Function

What now alphabetically sorts the list of defined functions printed.

If, Any, and All Functions

If, any and all now return none as a "fail" value where they had previously returned false.

Here are some examples of the new return value:

val: 10
probe if val = 100 [print "matched"]
none
val: 10
probe any [val = 100 val = 1000 val = 10000]
none
set [val1 val2 val3] [10 100 2000]
probe all [val1 = 10 val2 = 100 val3 = 1000]
none

Help

Use the help function to get the description, arguments, and refinements for all functions, or to inspect other REBOL values. Type help and the function name at the prompt:

>> help cosine
USAGE:
    COSINE value /radians
DESCRIPTION:
     Returns the trigonometric cosine in degrees.
     COSINE is a native value.
ARGUMENTS:
     value -- (Type: number)
REFINEMENTS:
     /radians -- Value is specified in radians.

Help can also be used to search REBOL's internal documentation. Here is an example of using help with a word:

>> help path
Found these words:
    clean-path     (function)
    inst-path      (object)
    lit-path!      (datatype)
    lit-path?      (action)
    make-dir-path  (function)
    path!          (datatype)
    path?          (action)
    set-path!      (datatype)
    set-path?      (action)
    split-path     (function)
    to-lit-path    (function)
    to-path        (function)
    to-set-path    (function)

Fixes in 2.3

Here are the fixes made since version 2.3.

Split-path Function

When splitting the lowest level of a file path (%. or %/), the second value in the returned block will be none. When splitting a file (%file), the first value in the returned block will be the current directory (%./) and the second value the file itself (%file).

Here are some examples of using split-path:

probe split-path %.
[%./ none]
probe split-path %./
[%./ none]
probe split-path %/
[%/ none]
probe split-path %file.txt
[%./ %file.txt]

Network activity interruptible

Network activity may now be interrupted by pressing the escape key (esc).

A known exception is network activity on the BeOS version of REBOL/core which currently is not interruptible with the escape key.

Trim/lines

Trim/lines now removes all extra white space in a string, compressing all occurrences of whitespace into single spaces.

The following example demonstrates the behavior of trim/lines:

str: {
    line one
        line two
    line five
    line eight
}
probe trim/lines str
"line one line two line five line eight"

To-word Function

To-word now accepts set-word values as an argument.

The behavior of to-word with a set-word as an argument is demonstrated in the following example:

probe to-word first [data: "string of data"]
data
probe type? to-word first [data: "string of data"]
word!

To-block Function

When a path literal is used as an argument to to-block, a block is returned containing the path components as words.

The following example demonstrates the use of to-block with a literal path value:

probe to-block 'system/options/path
[system options path]

Other Changes (From Addendum Document) in 2.3

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